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Adenine nucleotide translocase +The '''adenine nucleotide translocator''', ANT, exchanges [[ADP]] for [[ATP]] in an electrogenic antiport across the inner mt-membrane. The ANT is inhibited by [[atractyloside]], [[carboxyatractyloside|carboxyatractyloside]] and [[bongkrekik acid]]. The ANT is a component of the [[phosphorylation system]].  +
Adenine nucleotides +'''Adenine nucleotides''', which are also sometimes referred to as adenosines or adenylates, are a group of organic molecules including AMP, [[ADP]] and [[ATP]]. These molecules present the major players of energy storage and transfer.  +
Adenylate kinase +'''Adenylate kinase''', which is also called myokinase, is a phosphotransferase enzyme that is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and catalyzes the rephosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the reaction ATP + AMP ↔ ADP + ADP.  +
Advancement +In an isomorphic analysis, any form of [[flow]] is the '''advancement''' of a process per unit of time, expressed in a specific [[motive unit]] [MU∙s<sup>-1</sup>], ''e.g.'', ampere for electric flow or current, ''I''<sub>el</sub> = d<sub>el</sub>''ξ''/d''t'' [A≡C∙s<sup>-1</sup>], watt for thermal or heat flow, ''I''<sub>th</sub> = d<sub>th</sub>''ξ''/d''t'' [W≡J∙s<sup>-1</sup>], and for chemical flow of reaction, ''I''<sub>r</sub> = d<sub>r</sub>''ξ''/d''t'', the unit is [mol∙s­<sup>-1</sup>] ('''extent of reaction''' per time). The corresponding motive [[force]]s are the partial exergy (Gibbs energy) changes per advancement [J∙MU<sup>-1</sup>], expressed in volt for electric force, Δ<sub>el</sub>''F'' = ∂''G''/∂<sub>el</sub>''ξ'' [V≡J∙C<sup>-1</sup>], dimensionless for thermal force, Δ<sub>th</sub>''F'' = ∂''G''/∂<sub>th</sub>''ξ'' [J∙J<sup>-1</sup>], and for chemical force, Δ<sub>r</sub>''F'' = ∂''G''/∂<sub>r</sub>''ξ'', the unit is [J∙mol<sup>-1</sup>], which deserves a specific acronym [Jol] comparable to volt [V]. For chemical processes of reaction (spontaneous from high-potential substrates to low-potential products) and compartmental diffusion (spontaneous from a high-potential compartment to a low-potential compartment), the advancement is the amount of motive substance that has undergone a compartmental transformation [mol]. The concept was originally introduced by De Donder [1]. Central to the concept of advancement is the [[stoichiometric number]], ''ν''<sub>''i''</sub>, associated with each motive component ''i'' (transformant [2]). In a chemical reaction, r, the motive entity is the stoichiometric amount of reactant, d<sub>r</sub>''n''<sub>''i''</sub>, with stoichiometric number ''ν''<sub>''i''</sub>. The advancement of the chemical reaction, d<sub>r</sub>''ξ'' [mol], is defined as, d<sub>r</sub>''ξ'' = d<sub>r</sub>''n''<sub>''i''</sub>·''ν''<sub>''i''</sub><sup>-1</sup> The flow of the chemical reaction, ''I''<sub>r</sub> [mol·s<sup>-1</sup>], is advancement per time, ''I''<sub>r</sub> = d<sub>r</sub>''ξ''·d''t''<sup>-1</sup> This concept of advancement is extended to compartmental diffusion and the advancement of charged particles [3], and to any discontinuous transformation in compartmental systems [2], :::: [[File:Advancement.png|100px]]  +
Advancement per volume +'''Advancement per volume''' or volume-specific advancement, d<sub>tr</sub>''Y'', is related to [[advancement]] of a transformation, d<sub>tr</sub>''Y'' = d<sub>tr</sub>''ξ''∙''V''<sup>-1</sup> [MU∙L<sup>-1</sup>]. Compare d<sub>tr</sub>''Y'' with the amount of substance ''j'' per volume, ''c''<sub>''j''</sub> ([[concentration]]), related to [[amount]], ''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = ''n''<sub>''j''</sub>∙''V''<sup>-1</sup> [mol∙''V''<sup>-1</sup>]. Advancement per volume is particularly introduced for chemical reactions, d<sub>r</sub>''Y'', and has the dimension of concentration (amount per volume [mol∙L<sup>-1</sup>]). In an [[open system]] at steady-state, however, the concentration does not change as the reaction advances. Only in [[closed system]]s and [[isolated system]]s, specific advancement equals the change in concentration divided by the stoichiometric number, d<sub>r</sub>''Y'' = d''c''<sub>''j''</sub>/''ν''<sub>''j''</sub> (closed system) d<sub>r</sub>''Y'' = d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub>/''ν''<sub>''j''</sub> (general) With a focus on ''internal'' transformations (i; specifically: chemical reactions, r), d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> is replaced by the partial change of concentration, d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> (a transformation variable or process variable). d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> contributes to the total change of concentration, d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> (a system variable or variable of state). In open systems at steady-state, d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> is compensated by ''external processes'', d<sub>e</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = -d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub>, exerting an effect on the total concentration change of substance ''j'', d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> + d<sub>e</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = 0 (steady state) d''c''<sub>''j''</sub> = d<sub>r</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> + d<sub>e</sub>''c''<sub>''j''</sub> (general)  +
Advantage of preprints +The '''advantages of preprints''', the excitement and concerns about the role that preprints can play in disseminating research findings in the life sciences are discussed by N Bhalla (2016).  +
Aerobic +The '''aerobic''' state of metabolism is defined by the presence of oxygen (air) and therefore the potential for oxidative reactions (ox) to proceed, particularly in [[oxidative phosphorylation]] (OXPHOS). Aerobic metabolism (with involvement of oxygen) is contrasted with [[anaerobic]] metabolism (without involvement of oxygen): Whereas anaerobic ''metabolism'' may proceed in the absence or presence of oxygen (anoxic or oxic ''conditions''), aerobic ''metabolism'' is restricted to oxic ''conditions''. Below the [[critical oxygen pressure]], aerobic ATP production decreases.  +
Affinity of reaction +The concept of '''affinity''' and hence chemical force is deeply rooted in the notion of '''attraction''' (and repulsion) of alchemy, which was the foundation of chemistry originally, but diverted away from laboratory experiments towards occult secret societies [1].<sup>**</sup> Newton's extensive experimental alchemical work and his substantial written track record on alchemy (which he did not publish) is seen today as a key inspiration for his development of the concept of the gravitational force [2-4]. This marks a transition of the meaning of affinity, from the descriptive 'adjacent' (proximity) to the causative 'attractive' (force) [5]. Correspondingly, Lavoisier (1790) equates affinity and force [6]: “''... the degree of force or affinity with which the acid adheres to the base''” [5]. By discussing the influence of electricity and gravity on chemical affinity, Liebig (1844) considers affinity as a force [7]. This leads to Guldberg and Waage's [[mass action ratio]] ('Studies concerning affinity', 1864; see [5]), the free energy and chemical affinity of Helmholtz (1882 [8]), and chemical thermodynamics of irreversible processes [9], where flux-force relations are center stage [10]. According to the IUPAC definition, the '''affinity of reaction''', ''A'' [J·mol<sup>-1</sup>], equals the negative molar Gibbs energy of reaction [11], which is the negative Gibbs [[force]] of reaction (derivative of [[Gibbs energy]] per [[advancement]] of reaction [12]): -''A'' = Δ<sub>r</sub>''F'' = ∂''G''/∂<sub>r</sub>''ξ'' The historical account of affinity is summarized by concluding, that today affinity of reaction should be considered as an isomorphic motive '''force''' and be generalized as such. This will help to (''1'') avoid confusing reversals of sign conventions (repulsion = negative attraction; pull = negative push), (''2'') unify symbols across classical and nonequilibrium thermodynamics [12,13], and thus (''3'') facilitate interdisciplinary communication by freeing ourselves from the alchemical, arcane scientific nomenclature.  +
Air calibration +'''Air calibration''' of an oxygen sensor (polarographic oxygen sensor) is performed routinely on any day before starting a respirometric experiment. The volume fraction of oxygen in dry air is constant. An aqueous solution in equilibrium with air has the same partial pressure as that in water vapour saturated air. The water vapour is a function of temperature only. The partial oxygen pressure in aqueous solution in equilibrium with air is, therefore, a function of total barometric pressure and temperature. Bubbling an aqueous solution with air generates deviations from barometric pressure within small gas bubbles and is, therefore, not recommended. To equilibrate an aqueous solution ata known partial pressure of oxygen [kPa], the aqueous solution is stirred rigorously in a chamber enclosing air at constant temperature. The concentration of oxygen, ''c''<sub>O2</sub> [µM], is obtained at any partial pressure by multiplying the partial pressure by the oxygen solubility, ''S''<sub>O2</sub> [µM/kPa]. ''S''<sub>O2</sub> is a function of temperature and composition of the salt solution, and is thus a function of the experimental medium. The [[Oxygen_solubility_factor|solubility factor]] of the medium, ''F''<sub>M</sub>, expresses the oxygen solubility relative to pure water at any experimental temperature. ''F''<sub>M</sub> is 0.89 in serum (37 °C) and 0.92 in [[MiR06]] or [[MiR05]] (30 °C and 37 °C).  +
Alternative oxidase +The alternative oxidase is a membrane-bound enzyme capable of supporting [[cyanide| cyanide]]-and [[Antimycin_A| antimycin A]]-resistant mitochondrial respiration. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol and the reduction of oxygen to water in a four-electron process. As this bypasses several proton-translocating steps, induction of this alternative pathway is associated with a dramatic reduction of ATP production. AOX is found in most plants (including microalgae), many fungi and protists, but is not expressed in animals. AOX is inhibited by [[salicylhydroxamic acid]] (SHAM). Expression and activity of the enzyme are modified by environmental conditions such as temperature, oxidative stress, nutrient availability, and pathogens such as viruses.  +
Ammonia solution concentrated +'''Concentrated ammonia solution''' (25%-30% ammonium hydroxide solution, ammonia) is used for the service of the polarographic oxygen sensor OroboPOS. After opening the commercial solution, the concentration of ammonia may decline during storage and may render the ammonia stock ineffective for sensor service. '''Source:''' A commercially available solution from a drugstore is sufficient for this cleaning purpose  +
Amount of substance +The '''amount of substance''', ''n'', is a base physical quantity, and the corresponding SI unit is the [[mole]] [mol]. Amount of substance (sometimes abbreviated as 'amount' or 'chemical amount') is proportional to the number of specified elementary entities, ''N''<sub>''i''</sub> of that substance ''i'', and the universal proportionality constant is the reciprocal value of the [[Avogadro constant]] [1], ''n''<sub>''i''</sub> = ''N''<sub>''i''</sub>/''N''<sub>A</sub> ''n''<sub>''i''</sub> contained in a system can change due to internal and external transformations, d''n''<sub>''i''</sub> = d<sub>i</sub>''n''<sub>''i''</sub> + d<sub>e</sub>''n''<sub>''i''</sub> In the absence of nuclear reactions, the amount of any atom is conserved, ''e.g.'', for carbon d<sub>i</sub>''n''<sub>C</sub> = 0. This is different for chemical substances or ionic species which are produced or consumed during the [[advancement]] of a reaction, r, :::: [[File:Amount dn.png|100px]] A change in the amount of ''i'', d''n''<sub>''i''</sub>, in an open system is due to both the internal formation in chemical transformations, d<sub>r</sub>''n''<sub>''i''</sub>, and the external transfer, d<sub>e</sub>''n''<sub>''i''</sub>, across the system boundaries. d''n''<sub>''i''</sub> is positive if ''i'' is formed as a product of the reaction within the system. d<sub>e</sub>''n''<sub>''i''</sub> is negative if ''i'' flows out of the system and appears as a product in the surroundings [2].  +
Amp calibration - DatLab +'''Amp calibration''' indicates the calibration of the amperometric O2k-channel.  +
Ampere +The ampere, symbol A, is the SI unit of electric current. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the elementary charge ''e'' to be 1.602 176 634 × 10<sup>−19</sup> when expressed in the unit C, which is equal to A s, where the second is defined in terms of Δ''ν''<sub>Cs</sub>.  +
Amplex UltraRed +'''Amplex UltraRed''' (AmR) is used as an [[extrinsic fluorophores |extrinsic fluorophore]] for measurement of [[hydrogen peroxide]] production ([[ROS]]) by cells or mitochondrial preparations. The reaction of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and AmR is catalyzed by [[horseradish peroxidase]] to produce the red fluorescent compound [[resorufin]] (excitation wavelength 563 nm, emission 587 nm). The change of emitted fluorescence intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> added, whereby the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> is consumed.  +
Amplitude +The '''amplitude''' of the [[absorbance spectrum]] can be described in terms of the [[absorbance]] differences between the characteristic peaks (absorbance maxima) and troughs (absorbance minima) (see [[absorbance spectrum]]) for substances present in the sample.  +
Amytal +'''Amytal''' sodium salt (synonym: amobarbital; 5-Ethyl-5-isoamylbarbituric acid) is a barbiturate drug and an inhibitor of [[Complex I]].  +
Anaerobic +'''Anaerobic''' metabolism takes place without the use of molecular oxygen, in contrast to '''[[aerobic]]''' metabolism. The capacity for energy assimilation and growth under '''[[anoxic]]''' conditions is the ultimate criterion for '''facultative anaerobiosis'''. Anaerobic ''metabolism'' may proceed not only under [[anoxic]] ''conditions'' or ''states'', but also under [[hyperoxic]] and [[normoxic]] conditions ('''aerobic glycolysis'''), and under [[hypoxic]] and [[microxic]] conditions below the [[limiting oxygen pressure]].  +
Anaplerosis +'''Anaplerosis''' is the process of formation of intermediates of the [[tricarboxylic acid cycle]]. [[Malic enzyme]] (mtME), phosphoenopyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), propionyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase and [[proline dehydrogenase]] play important roles in anaplerosis.  +
Anaplerotic pathway control state +'''Anaplerotic pathway control states''' are fuelled by single substrates which are transported into the mitochondrial matrix and increase the pool of intermediates of the [[tricarboxylic acid cycle]]. [[Malic enzyme]] (mtME), phosphoenopyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase play important roles in [[anaplerosis]]. The [[glutamate anaplerotic pathway control state]] and [[malate anaplerotic pathway control state]] are the most important anaplerotic substrate control states (aN).  +
Anoxic +Ideally the term '''anoxic''' (anox, without oxygen) should be restricted to conditions where molecular oxygen is strictly absent. Practically, effective anoxia is obtained when a further decrease of experimental oxygen levels does not elicit any physiological or biochemical response. The practical definition, therefore, depends on (i) the techiques applied for oxygen removal and minimizing oxygen diffusion into the experimental system, (ii) the sensitivity and limit of detection of analytical methods of measuring oxygen (O<sub>2</sub> concentration in the nM range), and (iii) the types of diagnostic tests applied to evaluate effects of trace amounts of oxygen on physiological and biochemical processes. The difficulties involved in defining an absolute limit between anoxic and [[microxic]] conditions are best illustrated by a logarithmic scale of oxygen pressure or oxygen concentration. In the '''''anoxic state''''' ([[State 5]]), any aerobic type of metabolism cannot take place, whereas '''''[[anaerobic]] metabolism''''' may proceed under oxic or anoxic conditions.  +
Antimycin A +'''Antimycin A''' is an inhibitor of [[Complex III]] (CIII). It binds to the Qi site of CIII and inhibits the transfer of electrons from heme ''b''<sub>H</sub> to oxidized Q (Qi site inhibitor). High concentrations of antimycin A also inhibit acyl-CoA oxidase and D-amino acid oxidase.  +
Ap5A +'''P1,P5-Di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap5A)''' is an inhibitor of [[adenylate kinase]] (ADK), the enzyme which rephosphorylates AMP to ADP, consuming ATP (ATP + AMP ↔ 2 ADP).  +
Aqua destillata +'''Aqua destillata''' (a.d.) is the Latin name for '''distilled [[water]]''', H<sub>2</sub>O. When a.d. is used in various solution protocols, it may indicate that water with the highest possible quality or lowest possible level of impurities should be used, as may be reached not only with distilled water but also with high-purity deionised water.  +
ArXiv preprint server +'''arXiv''' is a classic preprint server initiated in 1991 by Paul Ginsparg. {Quote: arXiv.org is a highly-automated electronic archive and distribution server for research articles. Covered areas include physics, mathematics, computer science, nonlinear sciences, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics. arXiv is maintained and operated by Cornell University with guidance from the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and the arXiv Member Advisory Board, and with the help of numerous subject moderators. ~ end of Quote}. arXiv rejects abstracts that are submitted without accompanying paper.  +